Selected bibliography of music notation, engraving, & printing

engraving, notation

abbreviations, arpeggio, articulation, barlines, beams, dynamics, glissando, grace notes, text, ledger lines, note heads, placement, repeats, slurs, ties, bowing, phrasing, breathing, stems

accidentals, clefs, clusters, harmonics, indeterminate pitch, microtones, transposition, trill, tremolo, vibrato, unisons, rhythm, beaming, beamed accelerando, dotted notes, hemiola, proportional notation, tempo, ties, time signatures, meter, rehearsal marks, divisi parts, measure numbers, score setup, solo, tutti, cues

wind instruments, air sound, pitch bending, flutter tongue, humming, tonguing, unpitched sounds, embouchures, harmonics, key slaps, multiphonics, mutes, octaves, subtones, unconventional trills, brass, cracked tone, growl, half valve, mouthpiece pop, rip, valve click, percussion, instrument abbreviations, pictograms, stick, mallet, beater, ranges of percussion, score order, effects, techniques, harp, bisbigliando, clusters, damping, fingernail buzz, half pedal, laisser vibrer, l.v., muting, pedal trill, plectrum, range, scordatura, slap pizzicato, sounding board, strumming, vibrato, whistling sounds

piano, braces, barlines, clusters, crossing of hands, inside the piano, pedals, silent depression, reverberations, tied from one hand to the other, organ, pedals, registration, stops, manuals, keys, reductions, choral scores, orchestra scores

voice, aspiration, beams or flags, falsetto, flutter tongue, inhale, exhale, mouth positions, nasal voice, phonetics, portamento, slurs, sprechstimme, spoken, text placement, vocal effects, whispering

strings, body, bridge, chords, damping, double stops, fingering without bowing, harmonics, muffling, pizzicato, slapping, tailpiece, taped sound, electronic notation, cueing, tape, neumatic notation, chant, Index of New Music Notation, Conference on New Music Notation, facsimile reproductions

engraving, notation, history

staff notation, tablature, St. Gall Manuscripts, pitch, neumes liquescence, rhythmic modification, Romanian letters, accent-neumes, point-neumes, square notation, plainsong rhythm, modal patterns, 13th century, Franco of Cologne, Petrus de Cruce, Ars Nova, Italian notation, French notation, 15th century, mannered notation, void notation, duration measurement, orthochronic notations, ternary meter, staff features, period sources

Didactic notation, note-naming, Guido d’Arezzo, Ut queant laxis, solmization, phonetic systems, tablatures, German, Spanish, Lute, French, cittern, guitar, graphic tablatures

after 1600, pitch, duration, accidentals, tonal system, symbols, directives, expression, tempo, mood, dynamics, accent, articulation, basso continuo, harmony, rehearsal cues, rhythm, ornamentation, transposition, chromaticism, atonality, limits of precision, revisions of the staff, precise notations, indeterminacy, musicology, analogue notation

engraving, notation, manuscript, printing

notation clarity, copyist’s equipment, paper, ink, pens, rulers, correcting, lettering, curves, dividers, compasses, music typewriters

barlines, braces, brackets, clefs, key signatures, note heads, time dots, ledger lines, stems, flags, beams, rests, syncopation, abbreviations, repeats, accidentals, arpeggios, clef changes, key changes, meter changes, performance directions, trills, slurs, rehearsal signs

special notation, keyboard, harp, arpeggios, beams between staves, extra staves, glissando, harmonics, pedal marks, registration, slurs, sympathetic vibration, clusters, alternating unisons, bowing, divisi, harmonics, high notes, mutes, pizzicato, string indication, legatos, mutes, sharing a staff, tonguing, indefinite pitch, rolls, tremolo, trills, staff placement, vocal notation, beams, flags, slurs, text, narration, spoken word

spacing, alignment, page layouts, keyboards, celesta, harp, harpsichord, piano solo, two pianos, piano four hands, organ, unaccompanied organ, chamber music without piano, duos, trios, quartets, quintets, sextets, large mixed ensembles, theater orchestra, condensed score, concert band, solos with large ensembles

page layouts for vocal music, solo songs, choral music, voice with small ensemble, voice with large ensemble

extracting parts, reproduction, binding, diazo process, spirit duplicators, photocopy, thermography, electrostatic process, offset printing, photostatic printing, xerography, binding, accordion fold, stapling, saddle stitching, ring binding, spiral binding, cloth tape, proofreading, copyright, degrees of the scale, names of instruments, voices, abbreviations, ranges of instruments and voices, frequently used directions, foreign terms, index of symbols

engraving, notation, printing, recent history

music reproduction, history, typography, engraving, autographing, stamping, stenciling, Halstan Process, photo reproduction, typewriters

stems, beams, beam slant, multiple beams, fractional beams, exceptional beaming

accents, accidentals, ties, slurs, phrase marks, key signature spacing, key changes, clusters, barlines, brace, bracket, triplets, clefs clef change, dots, rests, leger lines, fermata, dynamics, cue notes, grace notes, passing tones, syncopation, endings, fingerings, trill, glissando, arpeggio, tremolo, bowing, pedaling piano, pedaling organ, repeats, octaves, instrument changes, narration, text, pause, stage band articulation

page size, printing area, page turns, pagination, page layout, penmanship, engraving equipment, chords, arranging, editing, proofreading, reductions, historical dates, computer processing, metronome, tempos marks, shaped notes

engraving, printing, recent history

representation of sounds, origin of typographic music notation, engraved music printing, lithography, pewter plates, engraver’s tools, punches, preliminaries to engraving, ruling the staves, marking the plate, punching, engraving, finishing, proofing, transferring, printing, typographically printed music, routine of music typesetting, stereotyping, electrotyping,lithographic music transfers, music printing inventions, photo-mechanical process, British music engraving, historical notes on music engraving and printing, technical detains of engraving


signs used in music, dot, wedge-shaped stroke, short horizontal line, marcato, sforzato, tie, slur, crescendo, decrescendo, repetition marks, prima volta, octave mark, ornaments, modern tenor clef

string music signs used, simple bowing, spiccato, martellato, secco, detache, staccato, saltato, spreggio, ricochet, loure, legato, pizzicato, tremolo effects, col legno, sul ponticello, sul tasto, con sordino, senza sordino, string numbering

wind music signs used, single, double, triple tonguing, flutter tonguing, messa di voce, stopped, open, con sord and senza sord

percussion signs used, timpani, glockenspiel, xylophone, celesta, vibraphone, triangle, snare drum, tenor drum, bass drum, cymbals, tambourine, gong

harp, piano, organ, arpeggio, let vibrate, glissando, harmonics on the harp, piano pedaling, una corda, tre corda, toe and heel

range of instruments and voice, correct modern notation, table of note values and rests, names and symbols for octaves, note values, keys and key signatures, location of keys in the different clefs, transposing table of modal scales

German edition entitled, Hals über Kopf

conventions, chords, dotted notes, ties, accidentals, key signatures, dynamics, articulation, grace notes, arpeggiated chords, trills, glissando, vibrato, meter, tuplets, repeat signs, staff, clefs, noteheads, stems, tails, beams, ledger lines, octave signs, rests, barlines, rhythmic spacing, microtones, slurs, meter and beaming,inner beams, position of rests, beaming across rests, polymeter, mixed meters, denominator as notehead, tempo indications, silent bars, cross rhythm, tuplet bracket, tuplet numeral, rest within tuplet, tuplet repetition, tuplet beaming, tremolos, repeated note abbreviation, single-note tremolo, repeat abbreviation, repeat bars, Da Capo, Dal Segno

idiomatic notation, woodwinds, brass, percussion, keyboard, harp, classical guitar, strings, vocal music, articulation, microtones, transposition, glissando, clefs, techniques, mutes, special techniques, percussion allocation, number of players, instrument listing, labeling, tuned percussion, two players on one stave, note duration, damping, sticks, beaters, mallets, tremolos, rolls, trills, beating spots, timpani, drum notation, cymbals, special techniques, keyboard systems and clefs, voice-leading between staves, unisons, ties between staves, fingering, part-writing, placing slurs, placing dynamics, octave signs, glissando, clusters, stave layouts, pedaling, silently depressed keys, effects inside the piano, prepared piano, organ page format, manuals, registration, keys held down with wedges or weights, harp tuning mechanism, note spelling for harp, pedals of the harp, tremolos, bisbigliando, damping, l. v., harp, harmonics, plucking, scordatura, harp percussive sound on the body, strings, clefs, string designation, open strings, fingering, double stops, two staves, bowing definitions, techniques, area of the to bow, pizzicato, left hand finger work, vocal, placing dynamics, beaming, syllabic slurs, phrasing, breathing, enharmonic spelling, word division, extenders, hyphens, alternative text, falsetto, speech notation, voiced or un-voiced sounds, choral writing, SATB layout, choral reduction

layout and presentation, materials, score layout, part preparation, electroacoustic music, page sizes, formats, stave sizes, pagination, bar numbers, rehearsal marks, indentation, layout between movements, casting off, vertical alignment, performance instructions, solo and soli, optional cuts, ossia, score transposition, clefs, instrument labeling, enlarged time signatures, page layout, stave sharing, stave allocation, divisi string layout, wind band, brass band, orchestral reduction, enharmonic spelling, part preparation, page turns, clefs, octave signs, mute instructions, multiple rests, cues, cue notation, cue stave, repeated bars, tacet, accidentals, combined instruments, percussion, electroacoustic equipment, electronic component in the score, dynamics, pre-recorded material, sampled sounds, delay lines, program changes, continuous controllers

rhythmic independence and synchronization, cadenzas, solo ad libitum passages, unmeasured bars, independent parts, repetition, material freely within a time span, showing approximate pitch, line or grid, performance conditions, limits of choice, optional material, notation options, defining time units


history of notation, elements of notation, staves, braces, systems, ledger lines, octave signs, clefs, note-heads, stems, flags, beams, rests, pauses, ties, dots, accidentals, key signatures, meter, time signatures, barlines, rhythm, repeat signs, ornaments, dynamics, accents, slurs, tempo, expression

idiomatic notation, vocal, keyboard, harp, woodwind, brass, percussion, string, jazz notation

manuscript techniques, proofreading, score preparation, parts preparation

notation symbols, notation tables

notation, digital

engraving basics, page fundamentals, rhythm, pitch, markings, divisi, genres, chorus, solo voice, keyboard, orchestra, band, music for books, commercial copywork, tools, notation programs, music fonts, typography, page layout

notation, historical

principles of correct notation, symbols defined, abbreviations, signs, embellishments, scales, words and endings, measure, tempo, dynamics, forms and styles, vocal music, rhythm, melody, harmony, intervals, chords, cadences, history of music notation, instruments, acoustics, terminology reform, Beethoven analysis, pronunciation key

notation, historical, manuscripts, reproductions

printed and written music, dimensions of music paper, methods of notation, physiognomy of script, modern score, bar lines, superposition of parts, scoring, shape of notes, expression marks, tempo indication, dynamic marks, articulation, phrasing, fingering, pedal marks, abbreviation, shorthand, thoroughbass ornaments, keyboard polyphony

tools of writing, quill pen, steel pen, changing fashions of writing, individual hands, characteristics of signs, size, width, line quality, slant, shape, direction, connectedness, interrelations, space sensitivity, evenness, visual harmony and rhythm

bibliography, history of writing, notation since 1600, psychology of writing, graphology, handwriting of musicians

Monteverdi, Praetorius, Buxtehude, Froberger, Purcell, Scarlatti, Vivaldi, Lotti, Marcello, Porpora, J. S. Bach, Handel, Rameau, Martini, C. P. E. Bach, Rousseau, Gluck, J. C. Bach, Haydn, Cimarosa, Salieri, W. A. Mozart, Cherubini, Beethoven, von Weber, Schubert, Rossini, Paganini, Donizetti, Bellini, Mendelssohn, Chopin, Schumann, Liszt, Meyerbeer, Berlioz, Verdi, Wagner, Flotow, Smetana, Foster, Gounod, Franck, Bizet, Faure, Delibes, J. Strauss, Jr., Bruckner, Brahms, Moussorgsky, Tchaikovsky, Dvorak, Grieg, Elgar, MacDowell, Herbert, Loeffler, Wolf, Mahler, R. Strauss, Leoncavallo, Puccini, Debussy, Ravel, Rachmaninoff, Sibelius, Reger, Schoenberg, Berg, Ives, Bloch, Stravinsky, Prokofieff, Shostakovich, Bartok, Gershwin, Villa-Lobos, Hindemith

notation, jazz

uniform system, chords raw material, rules, graphics, major chords, triads, added 6th, added 6th & 9th, dominant 7th, dominant 9th, 11th & 13ths, major 7ths, major 9ths, minor chords, triads, added 6th and 9th, minor 7th, 9th, 11th, minor triads with major 6th, with major 7th, diminished chords, augmented chords, suspensions, altered function chords, compound chords, flat 5th, altered 9th, polytonal chords, 4th chords, omitted notes

notation, manuscript

copying materials, equipment, supplies, glossary, notes, flags, beams, rest, multiple bar rests, clefs, accidentals, signs, symbols, abbreviations, key signatures, time signatures, slurs, ties, chords, spacing, notation, phrasing, editing, english on parts, transposition, preparing a score for copying, orchestra parts, drum parts, guitar parts, piano parts, harp parts, string parts, vocal pats, lead sheets, song copies, choir parts, conductor parts, copying from sketch, copying for publishers

notation, printing, historical

Constance Gradual, earliest known book of printed music, southern Germany, 1473

Roman Missal, earliest known printed music with a date, Ulrich Han: Rome, 1476

Sarum Missal, earliest book of printed music in England, 1500

Ranulphus Higden: Polydronicon, musical illustration printed from quads and rules, Wynkyn de Worde: Westminster, 1495

Franciscus Niger: Grammatica, earliest know printed mensural music, staff lines added by hand, Theodor of Würzburg, 1480

Nicholaus Burtius: Musices opusculum, music illustrations from wood block, Paris, 1487

Guillermus Guersoni: Utillissime musicales regule, musical illustrations printed from type, Paris, 1496

Martin Luther: Geystliche Lieder, book printed entirely from wood block, Valentin Babst: Leipsic, 1580

Motetti de passione, mensural music printed from type, triple-impression, Ottavino dei Petrucci: Venice, 1503

Joan Ambrosio Dalza: Intabolatura de laute, printed tablature, double-impression, Ottavino dei Petrucci: Venice, 1508

Chansons nouvelles en musique, mensural music with text and notes by single-impression, Pierre Attaingnant, 1527

John Rastell: A New Interlude and a mery of the iiii Elements, mensural music printed in England, London, 1527

Maco Antonio Cavazzoni: Recerchari motetti canzoni, printed from a metal block, Bernardus Vercellensis: Venice, 1523

Vicention Galilei: Dialogo della musica antica e della moderna, earliest known music illustration printed from engraved plate, Giorgio Marescotti: Florence, 1581

Cornelius Verdonck: Ave gratia plena, plate engraved print of Virgin and Child with 4-part motet, Antwerp, 1584

Simone Verovio: Diletto spirituale, one of the earliest known book printed from engraved plates, Rome, 1586

Parthenia (The Maydenhead), earliest English music printed from engraved plates for the Virginalls, Dorothy Evans: London, 1612

John Dowland: The first Booke of Songes, printed with type, one-impression, parts facing in different directions, Peter Short: London, 1597

Georg Muffat: Apparatus musico-organisticus, printed from engraved plates, Vienna, 1690

Gabriel Bataille: Airs de defferents autheurs, lute tablature printed from type with single-impression, Pierre Ballard: Paris, 1608

George Bickman: The Musical Entertainer, printed from engraved plates, Charles Corbett: London, 1737

E. T. P. A.: Il Trionfo della fedelta, printed form type by one impression, J. G. I. Breitkopf, Leipsic, 1756

Franz Joseph Haydn: Trois sonates pour le forte piano, printed by lithography, Marcario Falter: Munich, 1797

notation, style manual

page layout grids, staves, systems, barlines, instrument names, voice names, clefs, key signatures, time signatures, notes, rests, slurs, ties, lines, trills, beams, tuplets, numbers

notation, style manual

Instrument labels, concert score, transposed score, infrequently used instruments, percussion abbreviations, accidental positioning, when to use accidental, articulations, accents, staccato dots, tenuto, breaking barlines, beaming, complex beaming, stem direction, stemlets, braces and brackets, chords, clusters, seconds, clefs, changes, clef usage, computerized music typography, dots, dynamics, expressive marks, editing, fingering for strings, mutes, first and second endings, footnotes, grace notes, hairpins, harmonics, string harmonics notation, indentions, key signatures, courtesy accidentals, keyboard notation, manuscript preparation, measure numbers, multiple voices, mutes, ottavas, pages, multiple staff parts, cues, pedal indications, percussion notation, proofreading, proofreading marks, rests, rhythm, slurs, ties, when to bread a slur or tie, dotted slurs, stem direction, tempo markings, text, italics, text above or below the staff, time signatures, trills, notating tremolandi, tuplets, values for irrational rhythms, vocal music, Score, fonts, Sibelius, contemporary innovations

orchestra reference

abbreviated encyclopedia of music and orchestra terminology


The orchestra, bowed strings, construction, tuning, fingering, double stops, divisi, vibrato, glissando, portamento, bowing, on the string, off the string, trills, effects, mutes, scordatura, harmonics, string techniques, violin, viola, violoncello, cello double bass, harp, guitar, mandolin, banjo, zither, string scoring, ensemble, foreground, background, contrapuntal sting writing, homophonic strings, string accompaniment, piano to string transcription

woodwinds, reed aerophones, construction, classification, transposition, playing techniques, woodwind section, woodwind scoring, flute, piccolo, alto flute, bass flute, oboe, english horn, clarinet, piccolo clarinet, E-flat clarinet, bass clarinet, saxophones, bassoon, contrabassoon, woodwinds and strings, variety of treatments, homophonic writing, contrast, doubling, new articulations, special effects, piano to woodwind transcription, brass, brass instruments in the score, overblowing, harmonic series, crooks, valves, slides, range, tone production, articulation tonguing, characteristics, effects, mutes, other mutes, horn, trumpet family, cornet, trombone family, tuba, tuba family, scoring for brass, brass choir, melody homophonic writing, contrapuntal brass, climactic brass, coloristic effects

percussion, historical uses, players, notation, mallets, beaters, sticks, categories of percussion, idiophones, xylophone, marimba, vibraphone, glockenspiel, chimes, crotales, steel drums, shaken stroked, saw, flexatone, crystal glasses, Membranophones, timpani, roto toms, chordophones, cimbalom, aerophones, whistles, metal, cymbals, crash, suspended, hi-hat, sizzle, Chinese, finger, triangle, anvil, cowbells, tam-tam, gongs, wind chimes, sleigh bells, bell tree, mark tree, brake drum, thunder sheet, wood blocks, temple blocks, claves, castanets, sand block sandpaper, maracas, jawbone, vibraslap, guiro, ratchet, slapstick, whip, log drum, slit drum, hammer, snare drum, tenor drum, field drum, bass drum, tom-toms, timbales, bongos, congas, tambourine, quica, lion’s road, sirens, motor horns, wind machine, piano, celesta, harpsichord, organ, harmonium, percussion setup, score layout, uses of percussion

orchestra scoring, unison, octave, tutti, melody, background, special effects, concerto, vocal accompanying, ensemble, chorus, transcriptions from keyboard, band, wind ensemble, various combinations, sore and parts preparation, orchestral setup, reduced score, condensed score, individual parts, band scoring, orchestral to band transcription

ranges, instruments in other languages, terms, orchestration, history of the orchestra, instruments, arranging, computer, electronic music


strings, nomenclature, early strings, personnel, divisi, score layout, numerical strength, solo violins, lower strings solo, bow usage, bowing style, tremolo, trill, plucked, non-bowing styles, tuning, double bass tuning, mutes, open strings, chords, double stops, arpeggiando, vibrato

woodwinds, nomenclature, flutes, piccolo, flute in G, oboes, oboe d’amore, cor anglais, bass oboe, clarinets, Bb clarinet, A clarinet, Eb clarinet, D clarinet, C clarinet, basset horn, bass clarinet, pedal clarinet, bassoon, double bassoon, compass, range, characteristics, score layout, technical effects, trills, tremolos, double tonguing, flutter tonguing, glissando, harmonics, mutes, extreme volume, unconventional sound production, vibrato, phrasing, solo passages, recorders, saxophones, sarrusophones, bagpipes

horns, notation nomenclature, range, seating score layout, open, stopped, crooks, valves, mute strong effects, technical devices, trills, glissando, long breaths, rapid tonguing, chords, vibrato, out-of-tune harmonics, emptying water, Wagner tubas, heavy brass, nomenclature, trumpets, trombones, tubas, notation, range, seating, score layout, mutes, extreme dynamics, glissando, rapid tonguing, natural harmonics, off-stage, flugelhorn, posthorn, bugle, litui, saxhorns, ophecleide, serpent, tenorhorn, cowhorn, alphorn

timpani, percussion, nomenclature, pitch, range, arrangement in the orchestra, tuning, notation, rolls, sticks, striking the head, two sticks, two drums, muting, damping, glissando, terminology, platform organization, score layout, range of dynamics, color, bass drum, cymbals, triangle, tambourine, snare drums, tabor, tambourin, gongs, tam-tam, castanets, bells, glockenspiel, xylophone family, vibraphone, woodblock, temple blocks, claves, rattle, ratchet, whip, bongos, tom-toms, antique cymbals, anvil, jingles, maracas, wind machine, thunder machine, cowbells, hammer, chains, flexatone, South American instruments

keyboards, harp, range, tuning, notation, score layout, effects, glissando, arpeggiando methods of plucking, resonance control, harmonics, tremolo, trills, sonority, piano, terminology, personnel, range, notation pedals, tuning, glissando harmonics, effects, clusters, shakes, prepared piano, celesta, harpsichord, organ, harmonium, guitar, mandolin, accordion, cimbalom, tubophone, typophone, harmonica, zither, ondes martenot, voices


strings, string orchestra, bowing, special effects

woodwinds, woodwind section, horn, trumpet, trombone, tuba, brass section

scoring chords for each section, transcribing piano music, scoring woodwinds, horns, strings

percussion, indefinite pitch, definite pitch, harp, celesta, piano

scoring full orchestra, special devices, infrequently used instruments, scoring for high school orchestra, writing score and parts, foreign names, instruments, terms, ranges of instruments

orchestration, historical

17th century orchestra instruments, 16th century, Purcell 4-part string orchestra, Bach and Handel period, Gluck orchestra, Haydn and Mozart period, 19th century instruments, Wagner period, Brahms-Tchaikowsky period, Strauss-Debussy-Elgar period, flutes-a-bec, treble shawm, pommer, flute oboe, cornetti muti, 17th century trombone, 17th century timpani, hunting horn, 18th century oboe da caccia, 2-key clarinet, 5-key clarinet, hand horn with tuning slide, viol and violin types

orchestration, historical

orchestral groups, strings, winds, brass, little sustaining power, pizzicato, harp, plucked strings, percussion, kettle-drums, piano, celesta, glockenspiel, bells, xylophone, comparison of resonance, tone qualities, melody in strings, grouping in unison, doubling octave, double octaves, thirds and sixths, woodwind melody, unison, octaves, thirds and sixths, melody in brass, unison, octaves thirds and sixths, melody using different groups together, wind and brass, string and wind, string and brass, three groups

harmony, number of parts, doubling, distribution of parts, notes in chords, string harmony, woodwind harmony, 4-part, 3-part, duplication of timbres, brass harmony, 4-part writing, 3-part writing, writing in several parts, harmony in combined groups, winds and brass in unison, overlaying parts, strings and winds

different ways of orchestrating the same music, tutti, tutti in 1 part, in 2 parts, in 3 parts, soli strings limits of range, transferring passages and phrases, chords of different tone quality, amplification, repetition, imitation, echo, emphasizing notes and chords, tone quality as a harmonic force, use of percussion, economy in orchestral color

voice with orchestra, accompaniments, transparence, harmony, recitative and declamation, chorus, solo voice with chorus, instruments on stage and in the wings

voices, technical terms, soloists, range, register, vocalization, vowels, color and character, voices in combination, duet, trio, quartet, chorus, range, melody, mixed chorus, men’s and women’s chorus

orchestration, notation, transcription

orchestration definition, textures, structures, orchestra origins, orchestration styles, techniques, timbres, harmonic series, spacing, balance, strings tuning, clefs, ranges, string as a group, bowing basics, common bowing, special bowing, harmonics, double stops, chords, tonal spreads, resonance, keyboard idioms for the string section

woodwind section, classifications, sound-producing, tonal strengths, agility, timbre, origins of transposition, ranges, clefs, transpositions, key choices, flute, piccolo, clarinets, saxophones, oboes, bassoons, woodwind scoring as an independent section, keyboard idioms as applied to the woodwind section

brass section, instrument standardization, sound production, ranges, clefs, transpositions, common characteristics, special effects, horns, crooks, changing fundamentals, harmonic series, transposition, valve horn, 4-part writing for horn section, trumpet, notation, harmonic series, natural trumpet, cornet, tonal qualities, trumpets as a group, trombone, slide positions, clefs,harmony playing, trombones as a group, tuba, playing characteristics, idiomatic uses, scoring brass as a section, voice allocations

percussion section, pitch, timbre, convention and modern uses, vibration characteristics, notation problems, drums, timpani, snare drum, bass drum, tambourine, tom-tom, metal percussion, triangle, glockenspiel, vibraphone, chimes, gong, tam-tam, antique cymbals, wood percussion, xylophone, marimba, wood block, temple blocks, castanets, percussion ensemble

harp, celesta, piano, organ

scoring chorals, short scores, keyboard idioms applied to full orchestra, choral orchestration, conducting for the orchestrator, rehearsal numbers, cueing, transcriptions

scoring, band, notation

instruments of the band, transposition, the score, score reading, flute, alto or G flute, C piccolo Db piccolo, oboe, english horn, bassoon, contra-bassoon, Bb clarinet, A clarinet, Eb clarinet, Eb Alto clarinet, bass clarinet, contra-bass clarinet, Eb alto sax, Bb tenor sax, Eb bari sax, Bb bass sax, sax choir, Bb cornet, mutes, Bb trumpet, flugelhorn, horn in F Alto horn in Eb, trombone, bass trombone, baritone, euphonium, Eb tuba, Bb tuba, harp, cello, celeste, string bass

instrumental families, timbre classification, functional classifications, quartet writing, instruments and voices, quartet scoring, limitation of quartet scoring, open and closed position, tutti scoring, cornets, trombones, basses and baritones horns, saxes, alto and bass clarinets, high reeds, percussion, concerted style

mechanics of scoring, simple accompaniments, musical composition, popular piano music, timbre, supporting the melody tone quantity, melody in tenor register, rhythmic elaboration, harmonic elaboration, countermelodies, figuration related to countermelodies, , Cueing and cross cueing, condensed scores, reference chart for cueing, cueing difficult passages, transcriptions, arranging, form, key consideration, practical keys for band, basic scoring techniques, analysis of scoring devices

types of band scoring, transcriptions, band and orchestra instrumentation, strings, mechanics of transcription, substitution, dynamics and contrast, history, arrangements, popular music, use of devices, elaboration of material, form, piano writing, analysis of accompaniments, re-voicing, harmonic structure, organ and choral literature, marches, marching band, melody and rhythm over harmony, Sousa march, march scoring formula,, three instrumental sections, rhythm, new scoring conception for marching bands, solo instrumentalist with band, simple editing of printed band arrangements